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美国《权利法案》原文和译文

美国《人权法案》原文和译文

(2012-01-22 09:14:04)
 
 
转自盛东生律师网
 
 
 
 
 
   [陈有西按]1791年12月15日,美国宪法第一至第十条修正案获得通过,即《权利法案》,又译《人权法案》。在宪法中增加了信仰自由、出版自由、陪审制度等人权条款,以保证“生命权、自由权和追求幸福之权”(独立宣言)。美国媒体所享有的一切自由都源于此,几乎成为美国媒体及个人言论自由的护身符,不可动摇。
 
 
 

  美国《权利法案》,又译《人权法案》(英文:United States Bill of Rights)指的是美国宪法中第一至第十条宪法修正案。《权利法案》的第一条,即美国宪法第一修正案对美国影响巨大。美国媒体所享有的一切自由都源于此,在美国,凡是涉及言论、新闻、出版等诉讼,往往都会搬出此,它几乎成为美国媒体或个人言论自由的护身符,不可动摇。以至于美国人把它颂扬为“美国生活方式”的主要内容。 

权利法案原文及译文: 

第一条 Amendment I

  Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

  译文:国会不得制定关于下列事项的法律:确立国教或禁止信教自由;剥夺言论自由或出版自由;或剥夺人民和平集会和向政府请愿伸冤的权利。 

第二条 Amendment II

  A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.

  译文:纪律严明的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,人民持有和携带武器的权利不可侵犯。 

第三条 Amendment III

  No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

  译文:未经房主同意,士兵平时不得驻扎在任何住宅;除依法律规定的方式,战时也不得驻扎。 

第四条 Amendment IV

  The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

  译文:人民的人身、住宅、文件和财产不受无理搜查和扣押的权利,不得侵犯。除依据可能成立的理由,以宣誓或代誓宣言保证,并详细说明搜查地点和扣押的人或物,不得发出搜查和扣押状。 

第五条 Amendment V

  No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

  译文:除非根据大陪审团的报告或起诉书,任何人不受死罪或其他重罪的审判,但发生在陆、海军中或发生在战时或出现公共危险时服役的民兵中的案件除外;任何人不得因同一犯罪行为而两次遭受生命或身体的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自证其罪;不经正当法律程序,不得被剥夺生命、自由或财产。不给予公平赔偿,私有财产不得充作公用。 

第六条 Amendment VI

  In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

  译文:在一切刑事诉讼中,被告有权由犯罪行为发生地的州和地区的公正陪审团予以迅速和公开的审判,该地区应事先已由法律确定;得知控告的性质和理由;同原告证人对质;以强制 程序取得对其有利的证人;并取得律师帮助为其辩护。 

第七条 Amendment VII

  In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

  译文:在普通法的诉讼中,其争执价额超过二十美元,由陪审团审判的权利应受到保护。由陪审团裁决的事实,合众国的任何法院除非按照习惯法规则,不得重新审查。 

第八条 Amendment VIII

  Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

  译文:不得要求过多的保释金,不得处以过重的罚金,不得施加残酷和非常的惩罚。 

第九条 Amendment IX

  The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

   译文:本宪法对某些权利的列举,不得被解释为否定或轻视由人民保留的其他权利。 

第十条 Amendment X

  The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

  译文:宪法未授予合众国、也未禁止各州行使的权力,由各州各自保留,或由人民保留。

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